Week I Jan 20-22 Introduction
Week II Jan 25-29 The Breakdown
Week III Feb 1-5 A New Kind of War
Week IV Feb 8-12 Men and Machines
Week V Feb 15-19 Mind and Body
Week VI Feb 22-26 Conscience and Duty
Week VII Feb 29-Mar 4 The Home Front and the Women's War
Week VIII Mar 7-11 Economies of Scale
Week IX Mar 14-18 Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment
Week X Mar 28-Apr 1 Nations, States, and Empires
Week XI Apr 4-8 The Peace to End All Peace
Week XII Apr 11-15 Memory and Meaning
Week XIII Apr 18-22 Presentations
Week XIV Apr 25-27 Conclusion

Week I: Introduction

Jan 20: Introduction to the course and participants

Jan 22: La Belle Époque; the world before 1914

-- Adam Gopnik, "The Big One: Historians rethink the war to end all wars," The New Yorker (23 Aug 2004) [library online]
-- "Introduction" in Strachan
-- Russell, "Publisher's Preface" and "Author's Preface" in Justice in War-Time

Week II: The Breakdown

Jan 25: The Concert of Europe and the Age of Empires

-- Thomas Hobbes, "Relations among Sovereigns" in Leviathan (1651)
-- J.A. Hobson, "The Economic Taproot of Imperialism" in Imperialism: A Study (1902)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe before the War" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)

Jan 27: The July Crisis

-- Samuel Williamson, "The Origins of the War" (Strachan, Ch. 1)
-- Carl von Clausewitz, "War as an Instrument of Policy" in On War [Vom Kriege] (1832)
-- Sir Edward Grey, "Speech before the House of Commons" (1914)
-- Viscount Morley of Blackburn, "Memorandum on Resignation" (1914)

Jan 29: The August Madness, or the triumph of emotion over reason

-- Russell, "Why Nations Love War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Roland Stromberg, "Greeting the War" in Redemption by War: The Intellectuals and 1914
-- Modris Eksteins, "Berlin" in Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age

Week III: A New Kind of War

Feb 1: Mobilization

Hew Strachan, "Economic Mobilization: Money, Munitions and Machines" (Strachan, Ch. 10)
Daniel J. Hughes, "Schlichting, Schlieffen, and the Prussian Theory of War in 1914," Journal of Military History, 59:2 (1995) [JSTOR]

Feb 3: Hell on Earth, or life along the front

-- Ernst Jünger, "Trench warfare day by day" and "Somme Offensive" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924)
-- Donald Fraser, "My Daily Journal, Sept. 1915" from The Journal of Pvt. Donald Fraser, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-18
-- Fred Wilson and J.H. Pearson (eds.), "The Wipers Times" [excerpts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] (1916-18)
-- Nottingham Evening Post, "The Wipers Times" (22 Mar 1916)
Suggested film:
-- The Battle of the Somme (J.B. McDowell and G.H. Malins, 1916)

Feb 5: Propaganda

-- J.M. Winter, "Propaganda and the Mobilization of Consent" (Strachan, Ch. 16)
-- Rudyard Kipling, "For All We Have and Are" (1914), p.13
-- Rupert Brooke, "The Soldier" (1915), p.108
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "France" (1917)
-- James G. Watson (former US ambassador to Germany), "The German Peril" (1917)
-- Propaganda posters from the Allied and Central powers
-- Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin, World War I Propaganda Posters
-- Hoover Institution, Stanford University, British Images of the First World War

Week IV: Men and Machines

Feb 8: Factories of death

-- John Ellis, "The Trauma, 1914-18" in The Social History of the Machine Gun
-- Sigmund Freud, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, “The Kiss” (1917), p.31
-- Death notice telegrams from Canada (1916), Australia (1917), the United Kingdom (1918), and the United States (1918)
-- Australia War Memorial (Government of Australia), "Somme Casualties"

Feb 10: The knights of the air

-- John H. Morrow, "The War in the Air" (Strachan, Ch. 20)
-- Ariela Freedman, "Zeppelin Fictions and the British Home Front" Journal of Modern Literature, 27:3 (2004) [JSTOR]
-- W.B. Yeats, "An Irish Airman foresees his Death" (1919)
-- Funeral of Capt. Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron" (1918), Australia War Memorial
-- Paths of Glory (Director: Stanley Kubrick, 1957), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Feb 12: Courage, cowardice, and human expendability in a mechanized war

-- Alexander Watson, "Mutinies and Military Morale" (Strachan, Ch. 14)
-- Records of First World War Courts Martial in the National Archives of Britain
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Mary Postgate" (1915) and "Epitaphs: The Coward" (1919), p.162
-- Gilbert Frankau, "The Deserter" (1918), p.163

Week V: Mind and Body

Feb 15: The chemists’ war

-- L.F. Haber, "The Chlorine Cloud" in The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War
-- Government of the United Kingdom, Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare (1941)
-- Rudyard Kipling, "Gethsemane" (1919), p.130
-- Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum est" (1917), p.141
-- Richard Aldington, "Bombardment" (1919), p.124
-- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), "The Halifax Explosion, 1917"


Feb 17: Fit for battle?

-- J.M. Winter, "Military Fitness and Civilian Health in Britain during the First World War," Journal of Contemporary History, 15:2 (1980) [JSTOR]
-- Maj. G.R.N. Collins, "Evacuation of the Sick and Wounded" in Military Organisation and Administration (1918)
-- Eva Dobell, "In a Soldiers' Hospital" (1919), pp.207-208

Feb 19: Shattered selves

-- Ben Shephard, "Psychiatry at the Front, 1917-18" in A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century
-- Fiona Reid, "Shell Shock and Weak Nerves" in Broken Men: Shell Shock Treatment and Recovery in Britain, 1914-30 [library online]
-- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), US Dept. of Health, "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder"
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Survivors" (1917)

Week VI: Conscience and Duty

Feb 22: Religion, philosophy and the morality of war

-- St. Thomas Aquinas, "Part II, Question 40: War" in Summa Theologica (1274)
-- Russell, "The Ethics of War" in Justice in War-Time
-- Wilfred Owen, "The Parable of the Old Man and the Young" (1917), "Anthem for Doomed Youth" (1917), p.131
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "The Redeemer" (1917), p.62

Feb 24: The duty to obey

-- John Turner, "The Challenge to Liberalism" (Strachan, Ch. 12)
-- United States Government, The Sedition Act (1918)
-- Siegfried Sassoon, "Counter-Attack" (1918), p.135
-- Robert Graves, "Fairies and Fusiliers" (1918)
-- Regeneration (Director: Gillies MacKinnon, 1998), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Feb 26: The duty to disobey

-- Bertrand Russell, "Some Psychological Difficulties of Pacifism in Wartime" in Julian Bell (ed.), We Did Not Fight: 1914-18; Experiences of War Resisters (1935)
-- Russell, "An Appeal to the Intellectuals of Europe" and "War and Non-resistance" in Justice in War-Time
-- Siegfried Sassoon, “Finished with the War” An open letter to The Times (1917)
-- D.H. Lawrence, "Rondeau of a Conscientious Objector" (1919), p.28

Week VII: The Home Front and the Women's War

Feb 29: Women’s work

-- H.G. Wells, "What the War is doing for Women" in What is Coming? A Forecast of Things After the War (1916)
-- Susan Grayzel, "The Role of Women in the War" (Strachan, Ch. 11)
-- Claire A. Culleton, Working-class Culture, Women, and Britain, 1914-1921 (Ch.1)
-- Jessie Pope, “War Girls” (1916), p.169

Mar 2: Love and death

-- Vera Brittain, "When the Vision dies…" in Testament of Youth (1933)
-- Vera Brittain, "Hospital Sanctuary" (1934), p.209
-- Ivor Gurney, "To His Love" (1919), p.97
-- "Quand Madelon" (1914), "Keep the Home Fires Burning" (1915) [Lyrics]


Mar 4: Gender and race

-- Philippa Levine, "Battle Colors: Race, Sex, and Colonial Soldiery in World War I," Journal of Women’s History, 9:4 (1998) [Project Muse]

Week VIII: Economies of Scale

Mar 7: The newcomer: The global emergence of the United States

-- David Trask, "The Entry of the USA into the War and its Effects" (Strachan, Ch. 18)
-- Woodrow Wilson, "Speech on the Fourteen Points" in Congressional Record, 65th Congress, 2nd Session (1918)
-- US State Department, Office of the Historian, "Milestones: The Dawes Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts"
-- George M. Cohen, "Over There" (1917) [Lyrics]


Mar 11: Economic critiques of the war

-- B.J.C. McKercher, "Economic Warfare" (Strachan, Ch. 9)
-- Lenin, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)

Week IX: Revolution, Reaction, and Realignment

Mar 14: The creation of the Modern Middle East

-- Ulrich Trumpener, "Turkey’s War" (Strachan, Ch. 6)
-- Theodore Herzl, "On the Jewish State" (1896)
-- Sir Henry McMahon, Letter to Sherif Hussein ibn Ali (1915)
-- Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)
-- Balfour Declaration (1917) [image]
-- Palestine Mandate (1922)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Introduction and Chs. 1-2 in Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922)
-- Atatürk, Speech at the National Convention of the People's Party of the Republic (1927)
-- Sir Mark Sykes and Georges Picot, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1916)
-- T.E. Lawrence, Map proposing the postwar reconstruction of the Middle East (1918) [description]
-- Map of the Mandate System in the Middle East (c.1930)

Mar 16: War, socialism and revolution

-- John Horne, "Socialism, Peace, and Revolution, 1917-1918" (Strachan, Ch. 17)
-- Rosa Luxemburg, "The War and the Workers" in The Junius Pamphlet (1916)
-- Leon Trotsky, "Introduction" and "The Revolutionary Epoch" in The Bolsheviks and World Peace (1918)

Mar 18: The eleventh hour: armistice and peace

-- David Stevenson, "War Aims and Peace Negotiations" (Strachan, Ch. 15)
-- Conditions of the Armistice with Germany (1918)
-- Ernst Jünger, "My Last Storm" in Storm of Steel [Stahlgewittern] (1924)
-- Vera Brittain, "This Loneliest Hour" in Testament of Youth (1933)


Week X: Nations, States, and Empires

Mar 28: A birth of nations and the new internationalism

-- Zara Steiner, "The Peace Settlement" (Strachan, Ch. 22)
-- Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, xxv-xxxi
-- Thomas Hardy, "In time of 'The Breaking of Nations'" (1915)
-- Russell, "The Danger to Civilization" in Justice in War-Time

Mar 30: The beginning of the end: The war and the fate of empires

-- David Killingray, "The War in Africa" (Strachan, Ch. 7)
-- "In Foreign Fields" in The Economist (Aug 2014)
-- Christian Koller, "Representing Otherness: African, Indian and European soldiers' letters and memoirs" in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing
-- Proclamation of the Irish Republic (1916) [image]
-- BBC News, Ireland commemorates Easter Rising Centenary (27 March 2016)
-- BBC Archive, Indian Soldiers during World War I
-- Gallipoli (Director: Peter Weir, 1981), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Apr 1: Exhibition Tour: "The Great War 100 Years Later" (Special Collections, Watzek Library)

Suggested reading:
-- Turabian, A Manual for Writers, pp. 5-48

Week XI: The Peace to End All Peace

Apr 4: Counting the cost: The demographic effects of the war

-- Virginia Nicholson, "Where have all the Young Men gone?" and "A World that doesn't want me" in Singled Out: How Two Million Women survived without Men After the First World War [library online]
-- Vera Brittain, "The Superfluous Woman" (1934), p.255, "The Lament of the Demobilised" (1934)
-- Ezra Pound, "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" [IV-V] (1920)

Apr 6: The uncertainty of the victors and the bitterness of the defeated

-- Russell, "Is a Permanent Peace Possible?" in Justice in War-Time
-- Adolf Hitler, "The World War," "War Propaganda," and "The Revolution" in Mein Kampf (1925)

Apr 8: A return to normal?

-- J.A. Hobson, "How to Break the Vicious Circle" in Democracy after the War (1917)
-- John Maynard Keynes, "Europe after the Treaty" in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1920)
-- Warren G. Harding, "Back to Normal": a speech to the Home Market Club of Boston (1920)
-- Joe Young and Sam M. Lewis, "How Ya Gonna Keep 'em Down on the Farm (after They've seen Paris)?" (1919) [Lyrics]

Week XII: Memory and Meaning

Apr 11: The war in music and literature

-- Rudyard Kipling, "The Children" (1917), "Epitaphs of the War" (1919)
-- Cecil Spring-Rice, "I Vow to Thee, My Country" (1921)
-- Eric Bogle, "The Band Played Waltzing Matilda" (1971), "No Man's Land" (1976)
-- John McCutcheon, "Christmas in the Trenches" (1984)
-- The Wolfe Tones, "A Soldier's Song" (1993) [Lyrics]
Suggested reading:
-- Turabian, A Manual for Writers, pp. 49-83

Apr 13: Sites of mourning and remembrance

-- Modris Eksteins, "Memory and the Great War" (Strachan, Ch. 24)
-- Laurence Binyon, "For the Fallen" (1914), p.235
-- Christopher Hitchens, "Because our Fathers Lied" in Slate.com (2011)
Memorial websites:
-- Commonwealth War Graves Commission
-- Australian War Memorial
-- Canadian National Vimy Memorial
-- ANZAC Centenary (Government of Australia)
-- The Somme Association of Northern Ireland
-- First World War Centenary Project (Imperial War Museums)
-- Oh! What a Lovely War (Director: Richard Attenborough, 1969), 7-10pm, Miller 102

Apr 15: Visual arts and entertainment

-- Ana Carden-Coyne, "Wounded Visionaries" in The Guardian (Nov 2008)
-- Franz Marc, The Unfortunate Land of Tyrol (1913)
-- C.R.W. Nevison, La Mitrailleuse [The Machinegun] (1915), Paths of Glory (1917)
-- Gino Severini, Armored Train in Action (1915)
-- Felix Vallotton, Verdun (1917)
-- Paul Nash, Spring in the Trenches, Ridge Wood (1917), A Howitzer Firing (1918)
-- John Nash, Over the Top (1917), A French Highway (1918)
-- Unknown African artist, German Surrender at Mbala, Northern Rhodesia (1918)
-- Paul Nash, We are Making a New World (1918), The Menin Road (1919)
-- John Singer Sargent, Gassed (1919)
-- Wyndham Lewis, A Battery Shelled (1919)
-- Max Beckmann, The Night (1919)
-- Stanley Spencer, Travoys Arriving with Wounded at a Dressing Station (1919)
-- Max Ernst Murdering Airplane (1920)
-- Otto Dix, Disabled Veterans Playing Cards (1920), Flanders (1936)
-- Otto Dix, Der Krieg [War] (1924) [description]
-- Georg Grosz, Painter of the Hole (1948)
-- Gas Mask Angel (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tournai, Belgium)
-- Monty Python, "The Short Straw" (1973) and "Fighting Each Other" (1983)
-- BBC TV, "Black Adder Goes Forth" [final episode] (1989)
-- Caen-Normandie Mémorial: Cité de L’Historie pour la Paix, Art of the First World War (1998)

Week XIII: Presentations

Apr 18: Presentations: Cassidy, Ben B, Zoe, Ryan, Claudia

Apr 20: Presentations: Zack, Adriana, Dakota, Anna, Azen

Apr 22: Presentations: Sarah, Noah, Kat, Davis, Nicole

Suggested reading:
-- Turabian, A Manual for Writers, pp. 100-121

Week XIV: Conclusion

Apr 25: Presentations: Jocelyn, Ben Z, Rachel

Apr 27: Conclusion: Legacies and lessons of "the war to end all wars"

-- John McCrae, "In Flanders Fields" (1915), p.155
-- Osbert Sitwell, "The Next War" (1919), p.272
-- Stephen Moss, "Living Memorials" in The Guardian (May 2011)
-- "The Centenary Delusion" in The Economist (Jan 2015)
-- BBC News, The Funeral of Harry Patch (6 Aug 2009)
-- BBC News, The Funeral of Claude Choules (20 May 2011)
-- BBC News, The Last World War I Veteran (7 Feb 2012)


FINAL MEETING: MONDAY, 2 MAY, 1:00-4:00 pm

Created by campion@lclark.edu | Updated May 2016